Moreover, richer households make more effective decisions about university. Journal of Personality Assessment. As a result, we can observe that income status is a factor that significantly influences enrollment to university. Our work is also the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone T - which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths 2D: However, initial tests using Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFA pointed to low discriminant validity of the 10 basic values:
Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear relationship between 2D: The presence of some single items suggests the extension of the value theory and scales to encompass more than 15 values. Journal of Personality Assessment. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone T - which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths 2D: We have found positive and significant relationships between the level of income and USE results for high school graduates, with an equal achievement before coaching. The results for men are generally insignificant for Moscow but significant for Manila showing similar non-linear effects. We argue that, even under the USE, which was introduced instead of high school exit exams and university-specific entrance exams, entrants from wealthy households still have an advantage in terms of access to higher education, since income positively affects USE scores through the channel of a higher level of investment in pre-entry coaching. Moreover, richer households make more effective decisions about university. Finally, we show that holding the result of the USE equal, students with good and fair marks from wealthy families are admitted to universities with higher average USE score than those from poorer families. This paper examines the impact of family income on the results of the Unified State Examination the USE and university choice in Russia. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. The correlations between values next to each other in the two-dimensional space described by SSA were close to or greater than 1. We find that there is a quadratic relationship between high T exposure and markers of achievement such as grades or test scores and that the optimum digit ratio for women in our sample is lower indicating higher prenatal T than the average. We subsequently propose that students from the most affluent households do invest more in additional types of preparation pre-entry courses and individual lessons with tutors , and those extra classes provide a higher return for children from this particular income group. In response, one research stream suggested combining the factors with low discriminant validity. Implications for further development of the scale are drawn. It can be expected that the improved measurement of 15 values will increase their predictive power. Our work is also the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions. However, initial tests using Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFA pointed to low discriminant validity of the 10 basic values: As a result, we can observe that income status is a factor that significantly influences enrollment to university. Our work is thus unusual in that it draws from a large sample of nearly a thousand university students in Moscow and over a hundred from Manila for whom we also have extensive information on high school test scores, family background and other potential correlates of achievement. Our proposal respects the conceptual complexity of the values theory while avoiding contamination of composite scores. Another stream suggested that the problem was not low discriminant validity but rather misspecifications in the model.
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